Models enable greater fuel efficiency and cleaner exhaust emissions.
India suppliers of engines and related parts are releasing more environment-friendly models to keep pace with tougher vehicle regulations at home and abroad. To this end, R&D work at most companies revolves around enhancing fuel efficiency and reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
For those targeting the domestic market, which currently accounts for the majority of output, one of the factors driving development is the implementation of the Corporate Fuel Economy standards.
Under CAFE, automakers are required to increase the efficiency of their gasoline-burning fleets from the current 33.2 to 40.7mpg by 2015. The fuel economy of diesel-powered vehicles, meanwhile, should be raised nearly 28 percent to 46.8 from 36.6mpg.
With regard to carbon dioxide emission, the target is an average of 135g/km or 217.3g per mile for the entire fleet. This is much higher compared with the 2010 limit of 165g/km or 265.5g per mile.
Export-oriented companies face similar measures overseas. For one, the US has mandated carmakers to boost fleetwide mileage to 34.1mpg by model year 2016. Together with EPA standards, which enable vehicle manufacturers to achieve compliance by improving the air conditioners of their products, overall efficiency is expected to reach 35.5mpg. The specification is equivalent to about 250g of carbon dioxide per mile.
In the EU, Regulation (EC) No. 443/2009 specifies that vehicle manufacturers must achieve an average carbon dioxide emission of 130g/km or 209.2g per mile for all new passenger cars they register in the bloc.
Compliance will be phased in over a four-year period. By 2012, 65 percent of each company’s fleet should be compliant, increasing to 75 percent in 2013, 80 percent in 2014 and 100 percent from 2015 onward.
In terms of regulating emissions of nitrogen and sulfur oxides, carbon monoxide, volatile hydrocarbons and particulate matter, several engine makers are working toward Bharat Stage III and IV norms. The former is currently in place for all 4-wheeled vehicles nationwide, while BS IV is being implemented in more than 10 major cities. Limits in the two standards are equivalent to those of Euro III and IV, respectively.
Under efforts to meet stricter fuel efficiency and emissions requirements, many are adopting technologies such as multipoint and common rail direct injection, variable valve timing and turbochargers.
Continental Engines Ltd, based in Gurgaon, Haryana, is improving its products to adapt to higher emission norms in India and other markets.
At present, the company offers oil-cooled diesel models ranging from 8 to 22hp. Its selection includes designs suitable for 3 and 4-wheelers, diesel generator sets, agricultural equipment and construction machinery.
The units employ direct injection and high line pressure for an efficient and clean combustion system that will optimize fuel consumption. These comply with BS II and III requirements.
Continental collaborated with VM Motori of Italy for the manufacture of engines. The products are made in Roorkee, Uttarakhand.
Note: This article "'Green' engine technologies on the rise" was originally published by Global Sources, a leading business-to-business media company and a primary facilitator of trade with China manufacturers and India suppliers, providing essential sourcing information to volume buyers through our e-magazines, trade shows and industry research.
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